FLMS3006: Film & Folklore

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Institute of Humanities and Creative Arts

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FLMS3006: Film & Folklore

Mondays, 14:15 – 17:15

 Dr. Mikel J. Koven

m.koven@worc.ac.uk

 

 

This module explores the relationship between folklore and film studies, as complimentary disciplines for cultural analysis. More than simply identification of folklore in feature films, topics covered include motif identification, folktales as historical evidence, issues of orality, discourses of belief vs. disbelief, cultural survivals, ghost stories, urban legends and ostension.  In part an introduction to folklore studies, this module aims to ask different questions about the filmic text and its production contexts, by looking at them through the “lens” of folklore.

 

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the module, students will be able to,

  1. Utilise highly specialised scholastic skills in contemporary folkloristics, as applied to popular cinema (both fiction and documentary);
  2. Critically review, consolidate a systematic and coherent body of knowledge in history, anthropology, sociology, folklore, performance theory, literary studies, etc. and apply those discourses to popular films;
  3. Critically evaluate popular cinema as emerging from “vernacular” culture;
  4. Critically evaluate new information, concepts and evidence about filmic construction, through breaking the narrative down into its motifs;
  5. Utilise research skills from folkloristics to film studies

Attendance Policy:

 It is expected that you will attend all taught sessions, in the same way that attendance is expected in the workplace. Indeed regular attendance has a significant impact on student engagement, understanding and successful completion of University courses. Furthermore non-attendance will significantly affect your ability successfully to complete a module and may jeopardise your ability to undertake re-assessment in the event of failing a module.

It is your responsibility as a student, just as it would be if you were an employee, to ensure that you are punctual and that your attendance has been recorded on the register each week.

Should you, for some unavoidable reason, be unable to attend a scheduled session (for example if you are ill) then you must send an email to ihcastudentabsence@worc.ac.uk . Please include in your email your name and student number, the module code and name, the date of the missed session, and your reason for missing it. You should make sure that you copy the module tutor into the email and also contact your module tutor to make arrangements to catch up on any work you have missed.

Notification must be received within 6 days of the date of the missed session.

Alternatively you can inform IHCA of your absence via the telephone. Please ring 01905 542015 (Shirley Adams) with the required details.

Students with two or more unexplained absences may be required to attend a tutorial/ interview with the module leader, course leader or head of division to discuss their progress.

 

Learning Contract:

On this module you are expected to be courteous and attentive to your fellow classmates and to the module tutor. You are also expected to undertake the required reading each week and to view the film or films under question. Failure to do either of these things will severely impede your success on the module.

The use of mobile phones will not be tolerated in classes, lectures or screenings. Please turn off all phones before the lesson starts.

Please feel free to email me (m.koven@worc.ac.uk)with any queries you have regarding the module, I will try to reply within 3 working days. My office hours will be posted on the door of my office (BB 133), however I am always open to seeing students at other times if you make an appointment.   

 

Readings:

Weekly readings will come from a variety of sources. These books and journal articles will be made available to you well in advance of the relevant class.

Bascom, W. (1954) Four Functions of Folklore. Journal of American Folklore 67, 333-349.

Bascom, W. (1965) The Forms of Folklore, Prose Narratives. Journal of American Folklore 78, 3-20.

Brottman, Mikita. (2005) Once Upon a Time in Texas. In Offensive Films, pp. 96-112. Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press.

Campbell, J. ([1949] 1993) The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Fontana Press

Koven, M. (2008) Film, Folklore and Urban Legends.  Lanham, Scarecrow Press.

Koven, Mikel (2013) Found-Footage Films and the Visual Rhetoric of the Legend Film. From the Mind of Mikel. [online] http:fromthemindofmikel.wordpress.com (accessed 3 Sept, 2013)

Oring, Elliott. (2008) Legendry and the Rhetoric of Truth. Journal of American Folklore 121, 127-166.

Raglan, F.R.S. (Lord). (1934) The Hero of Tradition. Folklore, 45, 212-231.

Segal, R (2004) Myth, A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press

Short, Sue. (2006) Misfit Sisters, Screen Horror as Female Rites of Passage. Palgrave.

Zipes, Jack. (1997) Towards a Theory of the Fairy-Tale Film, The Case of Pinocchio. In Happily Ever After, Fairy Tales, Children and the Cultural Industry, pp. 61-88. London, Routledge.

Films:

Every effort will be made to make the films available for you to watch. However, it is your responsibility to ensure that you have seen the texts being discussed. You can source many of the films on Netflix, Amazon Instant or You Tube, however there may be some DVD purchase necessary. In that instance, you will be informed well ahead of time.

 The DVD Library:

The DVD library for FLMS3006 – Film & Folklore is held in my office (BB133). All DVDs are available for a short term loan (1 day). You can view the film in the Pierson or on your own laptop but you must return the DVD on the day of the loan.

Key Films:

Batman vs. Superman: The Dawn of Justice (Zach Snyder, 2016)

La Belle et la bête (Jean Cocteau, 1946)

Candyman (Bernard Rose, 1992)

Killer Legends (Joshua Zeman, 2014)

Man of Steel (Zach Snyder, 2013)

Noah (Darren Aranofsky, 2014)

Sleeping Beauty (Julia Leigh, 2011)

The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (Tobe Hooper, 1974)

Trojan Women (Mihalis Kakogiannis, 1971)

TrollHunter (André Øvredal, 2010)

The Wicker Man (Robin Hardy, 1973)

 

Fairy Tale Films:

Les amants criminels (François Ozon, 1999)

Beastly (Daniel Barnz, 2011)

The Company of Wolves (Neil Jordan, 1984)

Ever After (Andy Tennant, 1998)

Freeway (Matthew Bright, 1996)

Freeway II, Confessions of a Trick Baby (Matthew Bright, 1999)

Hansel & Gretel (Pil-sung Yim, 2007)

The House at the End of the Street (Mark Tonderai, 2012)

Maleficent (Robert Stromberg, 2014)

Mirror, Mirror (Tarsem Singh, 2012)

Pan’s Labyrinth (Guillermo del Toro, 2006)

Pretty Woman (Garry Marshall, 1990)

The Princess Bride (Rob Reiner, 1987)

Red Riding Hood (Catherine Hardwicke, 2011)

The Seasoning House (Paul Hyett, 2012)

Snow White and the Huntsman (Rupert Sanders, 2012)

Tale of Tales (Matteo Garrone, 2015)

 

Myth Films:

300 (Zach Snyder, 2006)

Beowulf (Robert Zemeckis, 2007)

Clash of the Titans (Desmond Davis, 1981)

Clash of the Titans (Louis Leterrier, 2010)

Edipo Re (Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1967)

Excalibur (John Boorman, 1981)

Exodus: Gods and Kings (Ridley Scott, 2014)

King Arthur (Antoine Fuqua, 2004)

Medea (Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1969)

Star Trek (J. J. Abrams, 2009)

Star Wars (George Lucas, 1977)

 

Legend Films:

Alligator (Lewis Teague, 1980)

Campfire Tales (Matt Cooper, Martin Kunert, David Semel, 1997)

Cropsy (Joshua Zeman, 2009)

Dead Man on Campus (Alan Cohn, 1998)

Dead Man’s Curve (Dan Rosen, 1998)

Fairytale:  A True Story (Charles Sturridge, 1997)

Grave Encounters (Vicious Brothers, 2011)

Paranormal Activity (Oren Peli, 2007)

Robin Hood (Ridley Scott, 2010)

Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves (Kevin Reynolds, 1991)

Rosewell (Jeremy Kagan, 1994)

The Town That Dreaded Sundown (Charles B. Pierce, 1976)

The Town That Dreaded Sundown (Alfonso Gomez-Rejon, 2014)

Urban Legend (Jamie Blanks, 1998)

When a Stranger Calls (Fred Walton, 1979)

 


Module Calendar (note, topics and film titles subject to change)

 

26 Sept: What is Folklore?

Reading: Bascom, W. (1954) Four Functions of Folklore. Journal of American Folklore 67, 333-349.

Key film: The Wicker Man (Robin Hardy, 1973)

Background films: Pan’s Labyrinth (Guillermo del Toro, 2006)

The Princess Bride (Rob Reiner, 1987)

 

03 Oct: The Fairy Tale Film

Reading: Zipes, Jack. (1997) Towards a Theory of the Fairy-Tale Film, The Case of Pinocchio. In Happily Ever After, Fairy Tales, Children and the Cultural Industry, pp. 61-88. London, Routledge.

Key film: La Belle et la bête (Jean Cocteau, 1946)

Background films: The Company of Wolves (Neil Jordan, 1984)

Mirror, Mirror (Tarsem Singh, 2012)

Maleficent (Robert Stromberg, 2014)

Red Riding Hood (Catherine Hardwicke, 2011)

Snow White and the Huntsman (Rupert Sanders, 2012)

Tale of Tales (Matteo Garrone, 2015)

 

10 Oct: Motifs & Tale Types

Reading: Brottman, Mikita. (2005) Once Upon a Time in Texas. In Offensive Films, pp. 96-112. Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press.

Key film: The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (Tobe Hooper, 1974)

Background films: Les amants criminels (François Ozon, 1999)

The House at the End of the Street (Mark Tonderai, 2012)

Freeway (Matthew Bright, 1996)

Freeway II, Confessions of a Trick Baby (Matthew Bright, 1999)

 

17 Oct: Fairy Tale Film Analysis

Reading: Short, Sue. (2006) Misfit Sisters, Screen Horror as Female Rites of Passage. Palgrave. [pp. 1-44]

Key film: Sleeping Beauty (Julia Leigh, 2011)

Background films:  Beastly (Daniel Barnz, 2011)

Ever After (Andy Tennant, 1998)

Hansel & Gretel (Pil-sung Yim, 2007)

Pretty Woman (Garry Marshall, 1990)

The Seasoning House (Paul Hyett, 2012)

 

24 Oct: Mythic Film

Reading: Bascom, W. (1965) The Forms of Folklore, Prose Narratives. Journal of American Folklore 78, 3-20.

Key film: Noah (Darren Aranofsky, 2014)

Background films: 300 (Zach Snyder, 2006)

Beowulf (Robert Zemeckis, 2007)

Clash of the Titans (Desmond Davis, 1981)

Clash of the Titans (Louis Leterrier, 2010)

Excalibur (John Boorman, 1981)

Exodus: Gods and Kings (Ridley Scott, 2014)

King Arthur (Antoine Fuqua, 2004)

 

31 Oct: Reading Week

 

07 Nov: The Hero’s Journey

Reading: Campbell, J. ([1949] 1993) The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Fontana Press

Raglan, F.R.S. (Lord). (1934) The Hero of Tradition. Folklore, 45, 212-231.

Key films: Batman vs. Superman: The Dawn of Justice (Zach Snyder, 2016) (excerpts)

Man of Steel (Zach Snyder, 2013) (excerpts)

Background films: Star Trek (J. J. Abrams, 2009)

Star Wars (George Lucas, 1977)

 

14 Nov: Mythic Adaptations

Reading: Segal, R (2004) Myth, A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press

Key film: Trojan Women (Mihalis Kakogiannis, 1971)

Background films: Edipo Re (Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1967)

Medea (Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1969)

 

21 Nov: Legend Film

Reading: Koven, Mikel (2013) Found-Footage Films and the Visual Rhetoric of the Legend Film. From the Mind of Mikel. [online] http:fromthemindofmikel.wordpress.com (accessed 3 Sept, 2013)

Oring, Elliott. (2008) Legendry and the Rhetoric of Truth. Journal of American Folklore 121, 127-166.

Key film: TrollHunter (André Øvredal, 2010)

Background films: Fairytale:  A True Story (Charles Sturridge, 1997)

Grave Encounters (Vicious Brothers, 2011)

Paranormal Activity (Oren Peli, 2007)

Robin Hood (Ridley Scott, 2010)

Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves (Kevin Reynolds, 1991)

Rosewell (Jeremy Kagan, 1994)

 

 

28 Nov: Documentary and Docudrama

Reading: Tangherlini, T. R. (1990) “It Happened Not Too Far from Here …”, A Survey of Legend Theory and Characterization. Western Folklore 49(4), 371-390.

Key film: Killer Legends (Joshua Zeman, 2014)

Background films: Cropsy (Joshua Zeman, 2009)

The Town That Dreaded Sundown (Charles B. Pierce, 1976)

The Town That Dreaded Sundown (Alfonso Gomez-Rejon, 2014)

 

 

05 Dec: Urban Legends & Film

Reading: Koven, M. (2008) Film, Folklore and Urban Legends.  Lanham, Scarecrow Press.

Key film: Candyman (Bernard Rose, 1992)

Background films: Alligator (Lewis Teague, 1980)

Campfire Tales (Matt Cooper, Martin Kunert, David Semel, 1997)

Dead Man on Campus (Alan Cohn, 1998)

Dead Man’s Curve (Dan Rosen, 1998)

Urban Legend (Jamie Blanks, 1998)

When a Stranger Calls (Fred Walton, 1979)

 

02 Jan: New Year’s Day (no class)

 

09 Jan: Revision & Essay Discussion

 

 


Assignments

Assignment One

 

Choose any one (1) of the following questions to answer. Your discussion should make use of the bibliography below as thoroughly as possible. Essays will be graded according to the learning outcomes (on page 2 of this handbook), specifically,

  1. Utilise highly specialised scholastic skills in contemporary folkloristics, as applied to popular cinema (both fiction and documentary);
  2. Critically review, consolidate a systematic and coherent body of knowledge in history, anthropology, sociology, folklore, performance theory, literary studies, etc. and apply those discourses to popular films;
  3. Critically evaluate popular cinema as emerging from “vernacular” culture;
  4. Critically evaluate new information, concepts and evidence about filmic construction, through breaking the narrative down into its motifs;
  5. Utilise research skills from folkloristics to film studies

 

Essay questions:

  1. Using William Bascom’s essay, “Four Functions of Folklore” as a starting point, discuss how any film of your choice (other than a “key” film) can be read as functionally folkloric.
  2. Zipes proposes that the ‘fairy tale film’ is a genre in its own right. Using one of the appropriate ‘background films’, examine the fairy tale film as genre [Note, answering this question should draw on Rick Altman’s ‘pragmatic’ approach to genre].
  3. Using one of the appropriate ‘background films’, examine how fairy tale films are able to discuss contemporary adult fears.

 

Length, 1500-words

Due, 4 November, at 15:00

Weighting, 40%

 

Assignment Two

 

Choose any one (1) of the following questions to answer. Your discussion should make use of the bibliography below as thoroughly as possible. Essays will be graded according to the learning outcomes (on page 2 of this handbook), specifically,

  1. Utilise highly specialised scholastic skills in contemporary folkloristics, as applied to popular cinema (both fiction and documentary);
  2. Critically review, consolidate a systematic and coherent body of knowledge in history, anthropology, sociology, folklore, performance theory, literary studies, etc. and apply those discourses to popular films;
  3. Critically evaluate popular cinema as emerging from “vernacular” culture;
  4. Critically evaluate new information, concepts and evidence about filmic construction, through breaking the narrative down into its motifs;
  5. Utilise research skills from folkloristics to film studies

 

Essay questions:

  1. Using one of the appropriate ‘background films’, examine the film’s hero as “the hero of tradition”.
  2. Using one of the appropriate ‘background films’, examine the cinematic articulation of mythology in that film.
  3. Using one of the appropriate ‘background films’, examine the cinematic articulation of a legend in that film.

 

Length, 2000-words

Due, 20 January at 15:00

Weighting, 60%

 

*Assignments will be graded within three weeks of submission*

 

Submission,

Both assignments should be electronically submitted via the student’s SOLE page. All assignments will be submitted to Turnitin by the module leader.

 

For information regarding plagiarism, referencing, and general study skills please visit http,//www.worc.ac.uk/studyskills


Selected Bibliographies

 

Fairy Tales & FIlm

Bacchilega, C. (1999). Postmodern Fairy Tales: Gender and Narrative Strategies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bascom, W. (1965) The Forms of Folklore, Prose Narratives. Journal of American Folklore 78, 3-20.

Brottman, Mikita. (2005) Once Upon a Time in Texas. In Offensive Films, pp. 96-112. Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press.

Darnton, R. ([1984] 2009) The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History. New York, Basic Books.

Foster, M. D and J. A. Tolbert (eds). (2016). The Folkloresque: Reframing Folklore in a Popular Culture World. Logan: Utah State University Press.

Greenhill, Pauline & Sidney Eve Matrix (eds). (2010) Fairy Tale Films, Visions of Ambiguity. Logan, Utah State University Press.

Greenhill, Pauline & Jill Terry Rudy (eds). (2014). Channeling Wonder: Fairy Tales on Television. EDS Publications Ltd.

Propp, V. ([1928] 1968) Morphology of the Folktale. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Rankin, Walter. (2007) Grimm Pictures, Fairy Tale Archetypes in Eight Horror and Suspense Films. London, McFarland & Company.

Short, Sue. (2006) Misfit Sisters, Screen Horror as Female Rites of Passage. Palgrave

Short, Sue (2015). Fairy Tale and Film: Old Tales with a New Spin. Palgrave.

Stewart, S. (1982) The Epistemology of the Horror Story. Journal of American Folklore 95, 33-50.

Stone, K. (1975) Things Walt Disney Never Told Us. Journal of American Folklore 88, 42-50.

Stone, K. (1981) Märchen to Fairy Tale, An Unmagical Transformation. Western Folklore 40, 232-244.

Swann Jones, S. (1987) On Analyzing Fairy Tales, “Little Red Riding Hood” Revisited. Western Folklore 46, 97-106.

Thompson, S.  ([1948] 1977) The Folktale. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Zipes, Jack (2011) Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion. London: Routledge.

Zipes, Jack. (1997) Towards a Theory of the Fairy-Tale Film, The Case of Pinocchio. In Happily Ever After, Fairy Tales, Children and the Cultural Industry, pp. 61-88. London, Routledge.

Zipes, Jack. (2011) The Enchanted Screen, The Unknown History of Fairy-Tale Films. London, Routledge

Zipes, Jack, Pauline Greenhill, and Kendra Magnug-Johnson (eds). (2016) Fairy-Tale Films Beyond Disney: International Perspectives. London: Routledge

 

Myth & Film

Barthes, Roland. (2009 [1957]) Mythologies. Vintage Classics.

Bascom, W. (1965) The Forms of Folklore, Prose Narratives. Journal of American Folklore 78, 3-20.

Campbell, J. ([1949] 1993) The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Fontana Press

Foster, M. D and J. A. Tolbert (eds). (2016). The Folkloresque: Reframing Folklore in a Popular Culture World. Logan: Utah State University Press.

Klapp, O. (1949) The Folk Hero. Journal of American Folklore 62, 17-25.

Martin, Joel & Conrad Ostwalt Jr. (eds). (1995) Screening the Sacred, Religion, Myth and Ideology in Popular American Film. Oxford, Westview Press.

Raglan, F.R.S. (Lord). (1934) The Hero of Tradition. Folklore, 45, 212-231.

Raglan, F.R.S. (Lord). ([1936] 2003) The Hero, A Study in Tradition, Myth and Drama. Dover Books.

Sebeok, T. (ed). (1955) Special Issue, Myth, A Symposium. Journal of American Folklore 68(4).

Segal, R (2004) Myth, A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press

Winkler, Martin M. (ed). (2001) Classical Myth and Culture in the Cinema. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

 

Legend & Film

Bascom, W. (1965) The Forms of Folklore, Prose Narratives. Journal of American Folklore 78, 3-20.

Bennett, G. (1991) Contemporary Legend, An Insider’s View. Folklore 102(2), 187-191.

Bennett, G. (2009). Bodies: Sex, Violence, Disease and Death in Contemporary Legend. Jacksonville: University Press of Mississippi.

Bird, S. E. (1994) Playing with Fear, Interpreting the Adolescent Legend Trip. Western Folklore 53(3), 191. 209.

Brunvand, Jan Harold (1981). The Vanishing Hitchhiker. New York: W. W. Norton

Campion-Vincent, Veronique. (1990) The Baby-Parts Story, A New Latin American Legend. Western Folklore 49(1), 9-25.

Campion-Vincent, V. (2005). Organ Theft Legends. Jacksonville: University Press of Mississippi.

Dégh, L. (1994). American Folklore and the Mass Media. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Dégh, L. (1996) What is a Belief Legend? Folklore 107, 33-46. [also see Bennett 1996 for reply to Dégh]

Dégh, L. (2001). Legend and Belief: Dialectics of a Folklore Genre. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ellis. B. (1989) Death by Folklore, Ostension, Contemporary Legend, and Murder. Western Folklore 48(3), 201-220.

Ellis, B. (1994) “The Hook” Reconsidered, Problems in Classifying and Interpreting Adolescent Horror Narratives. Folklore 105, 61-75.

Ellis, B. (2003). Aliens, Ghosts, and Cults: Legends We Live. Jacksonville: University Press of Mississippi.

Ellis, B. (2003). Lucifer Ascending: The Occult in Folklore and Popular Culture. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Fine, G. A. and B. Ellis. (2010). The Global Grapevine: Why Rumor of Terrorism, Immigration and Trade Matter. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fine, G. A. and B. N. Johnson. (1980) The Promiscuous Cheerleader, An Adolescent Male Belief Legend. Western Folklore 39(2), 120-129.

Fine, G. A., V. Campion-Vincent and C. Heath (eds). (2005). Rumor Mills: The Social Impact of Rumor and Legend. Aldine Transaction.

Foster, M. D and J. A. Tolbert (eds). (2016). The Folkloresque: Reframing Folklore in a Popular Culture World. Logan: Utah State University Press.

Koven, M. (2008) Film, Folklore and Urban Legends.  Lanham, Scarecrow Press.

Koven, Mikel (2013) Found-Footage Films and the Visual Rhetoric of the Legend Film. From the Mind of Mikel. [online] http:fromthemindofmikel.wordpress.com (accessed 3 Sept, 2013)

Oring, Elliott. (2008) Legendry and the Rhetoric of Truth. Journal of American Folklore 121, 127-166.

Tangherlini, T. R. (1990) “It Happened Not Too Far from Here …”, A Survey of Legend Theory and Characterization. Western Folklore 49(4), 371-390.

Wilson, M. (1998) Legend and Life, “The Boyfriend’s Death” and “The Mad Axeman”. Folklore 109, 89-95.

Useful Internet Sources

Fairy Tale Links

Aarne-Thompson-Uther Classification of Folk Tales. Multilingual Folk Tale Database. http://www.mftd.org/index.php?action=atu [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Ashliman, D. L. (1996-2016). Folklore and Mythology Electronic Texts [Folktexts]. http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/folktexts.html [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Greenhill, Pauline, Kendra Magnus-Johnson & Jack Zipes. (2016). The International Fairy-Tale Filmography. http://iftf.uwinnipeg.ca/ [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Heiner, Heidi Anne. (2007-2012). eBooks Index. SurLaLune Fairytales.com. http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/ebooksindex.html [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Heiner, Heidi Anne. (2007-2012). Index to the Annotated Tales. SurLaLune Fairytales.com. http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/talesindex.html [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Schwabe, Claudia (ed.). (2016). Special Issue: Fairy Tales and its Uses in Contemporary New Media and Popular Culture”. Humanities 5.3: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/humanities/special_issues/ fairy_tales [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

 

Mythology Links

Stasak, Jennifer. (2016). 12 Female TV Characters Redefining the Hero’s Journey. Screen Rant. http://screenrant.com/female-heroes-tv/?view=all [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Vetch, Beau-Caprice. (n.d.). The Mythology Podcast. http://themythologypodcast.com/ [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

 

Legend Links

Mikkelson, Barbara & David Mikkelson. Snopes.com. http://snopes.com. [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]

Norman, Mark. (2016). The Folklore Podcast. http://thefolklorepodcast.com/ [Last accessed 19 September, 2016]